BioFuel Development´s business strategy allow us to use the Best Available Technology (BAT). Our partners have successfully developed, demonstrated and proven their technology and process of converting waste (MSW/RDF) into low-carbon transportation fuels. The different processes in the planned facility have been demonstrated and proven on an integrated basis at a scale consistent with what will be deployed on a commercial basis.
FEEDSTOCK (HOUSHOLD WASTE) Household waste, or RDF/MSW, is an ideal feedstock for use in the production of renewable fuels. The organic material found in household garbage is rich in hydrogen and carbon, the building blocks for jet fuel. The utilization of energy from waste reduces the consumption of essential primary sources of fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum and natural gas. Because more than 60 percent of the energy generated from the waste comes from renewable resources, energy from waste is essentially CO2-neutral. Recovering energy from waste will result in a reduction of greenhouse gases, which will provide a valuable contribution to a climate neutral energy production in Norway. GASIFICATION There are many biological and thermochemical platforms to convert different types of feedstock into value added products; however most of these technologies can only convert a narrow range of feedstock types into a limited number of products, such as corn to ethanol, algae to ethanol, and waste to power. In contrast, gasification is a tecnological pathway that can convert almost all of any carbon-based feedstock into a wide range of downstream value-added products in an environmental, safe manner. Gasification of waste has been used for several years but not in the same scale as this project and not to produce anything else than electric power. The gasification technology from our chosen partner has been demonstrated and proven on an integrated basis at a scale consistent with what will be deployed on a commercial basis.
SYNTHESIS GAS (SYNGAS) Syngas is an abbreviation for synthesis gas, which is a mixture comprising of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Through gasification of waste the organic (carbon containing) materials are converted into syngas and the non-organic materials are melted to molten slag which is discharged and cooled. In use, the amount ratio of carbon monoxide and hydrogen can be adjusted to the current process. Syngas is used as a raw material in the chemical industry in different processes for the production of several very important products. A prerequisite for using syngas converted from waste to the production of biofuels, is that the syngas is thoroughly purified.
PURIFICATION (SYNGAS CLEAN UP) During gasification, various pollutants may be produced depending on the make-up of the waste feedstock. The feedstock can vary by plant from biomass, houshold waste (RDF, or even hazardous waste. The pollutants involved with these processes include sub-micron particulate matter, tars, ammonia, metals, dioxins and furans, and acid gases. One of the primary challenges is cleaning the pollutants in the syngas to a level that is tolerated by the down stream process. If the gas is not pure enough, the volume of end products will drop dramatically and lead to a project that is not financially sustainable.
GASFERMENTATION Gasfermentation is a biotechnology that opens up a new process line with a great opportunity to achieve a sustainable economy. A fermentation technology based on gas as feedstock is an important part of the upcoming circular economy and the green shift. Microorganisms are the actual driver in the conversion of renewable raw materials to a number of end products such as biofuels. In Project Green Sky Norway, the syngas will be converted into ethanol by using the gas fermentation technology.
ETHANOL/ATJ-PROCESS The Alcohol-to-Jet (ATJ) process starts with ethanol. The AtJ-process is a chemical process that converts ethanol into SAF. The fuel does not need to be further processed. The AtJ-process is approved by ASTM and can be used up to 50% blend in conventional jet fuel for commercial flights.
SYNTETIC FUELS/ SUSTAINABLE AVIATION FUEL (SAF) SAF is a necessary step in aviation’s decarbonization pathway, especially with next generation technologies like electric flight and hydrogen-powered propulsion still years away from application at scale. A transition to carbon-neutral flying is possible and Sustainable Aviation Fuels are the most promising decarbonization pathway in the near term.